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The AES-CBC Cipher Algorithm and Its Use with IPsec.
S. Frankel, R. Glenn, S. Kelly. September 2003.

 
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Network Working Group S. Frankel Request for Comments: 3602 R. Glenn Category: Standards Track NIST S. Kelly Airespace September 2003 The AES-CBC Cipher Algorithm and Its Use with IPsec Status of this Memo This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for improvements. Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state and status of this protocol. Distribution of this memo is unlimited. Copyright Notice Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2003). All Rights Reserved. Abstract This document describes the use of the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Cipher Algorithm in Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) Mode, with an explicit Initialization Vector (IV), as a confidentiality mechanism within the context of the IPsec Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP). Table of Contents 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.1. Specification of Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. The AES Cipher Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2.1. Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2.2. Key Size and Number of Rounds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.3. Weak Keys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.4. Block Size and Padding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.5. Additional Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.6. Performance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3. ESP Payload . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.1. ESP Algorithmic Interactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.2. Keying Material. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4. Test Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 5. IKE Interactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 5.1. Phase 1 Identifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 5.2. Phase 2 Identifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 5.3. Key Length Attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Frankel, et al. Standards Track [Page 1]
RFC 3602 AES-CBC Cipher Algorithm Use with IPsec September 2003 5.4. Hash Algorithm Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 8. Intellectual Property Rights Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 10. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 11. Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 12. Full Copyright Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 1. Introduction As the culmination of a four-year competitive process, NIST (the National Institute of Standards and Technology) has selected the AES (Advanced Encryption Standard), the successor to the venerable DES (Data Encryption Standard). The competition was an open one, with public participation and comment solicited at each step of the process. The AES [AES], formerly known as Rijndael, was chosen from a field of five finalists. The AES selection was made on the basis of several characteristics: + security + unclassified + publicly disclosed + available royalty-free, worldwide + capable of handling a block size of at least 128 bits + at a minimum, capable of handling key sizes of 128, 192, and 256 bits + computational efficiency and memory requirements on a variety of software and hardware, including smart cards + flexibility, simplicity and ease of implementation The AES will be the government's designated encryption cipher. The expectation is that the AES will suffice to protect sensitive (unclassified) government information until at least the next century. It is also expected to be widely adopted by businesses and financial institutions. Frankel, et al. Standards Track [Page 2]
RFC 3602 AES-CBC Cipher Algorithm Use with IPsec September 2003 It is the intention of the IETF IPsec Working Group that AES will eventually be adopted as the default IPsec ESP cipher and will obtain the status of MUST be included in compliant IPsec implementations. The remainder of this document specifies the use of the AES within the context of IPsec ESP. For further information on how the various pieces of ESP fit together to provide security services, refer to [ARCH], [ESP], and [ROAD]. 1.1. Specification of Requirements The keywords "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" that appear in this document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC-2119]. 2. The AES Cipher Algorithm All symmetric block cipher algorithms share common characteristics and variables, including mode, key size, weak keys, block size, and rounds. The following sections contain descriptions of the relevant characteristics of the AES cipher. 2.1. Mode NIST has defined 5 modes of operation for AES and other FIPS-approved ciphers [MODES]: CBC (Cipher Block Chaining), ECB (Electronic CodeBook), CFB (Cipher FeedBack), OFB (Output FeedBack) and CTR (Counter). The CBC mode is well-defined and well-understood for symmetric ciphers, and is currently required for all other ESP ciphers. This document specifies the use of the AES cipher in CBC mode within ESP. This mode requires an Initialization Vector (IV) that is the same size as the block size. Use of a randomly generated IV prevents generation of identical ciphertext from packets which have identical data that spans the first block of the cipher algorithm's block size. The IV is XOR'd with the first plaintext block before it is encrypted. Then for successive blocks, the previous ciphertext block is XOR'd with the current plaintext, before it is encrypted. More information on CBC mode can be obtained in [MODES, CRYPTO-S]. For the use of CBC mode in ESP with 64-bit ciphers, see [CBC]. Frankel, et al. Standards Track [Page 3]
RFC 3602 AES-CBC Cipher Algorithm Use with IPsec September 2003 2.2. Key Size and Number of Rounds AES supports three key sizes: 128 bits, 192 bits, and 256 bits. The default key size is 128 bits, and all implementations MUST support this key size. Implementations MAY also support key sizes of 192 bits and 256 bits. AES uses a different number of rounds for each of the defined key sizes. When a 128-bit key is used, implementations MUST use 10 rounds. When a 192-bit key is used, implementations MUST use 12 rounds. When a 256-bit key is used, implementations MUST use 14 rounds. 2.3. Weak Keys At the time of writing this document there are no known weak keys for the AES. Some cipher algorithms have weak keys or keys that MUST not be used due to their interaction with some aspect of the cipher's definition. If weak keys are discovered for the AES, then weak keys SHOULD be checked for and discarded when using manual key management. When using dynamic key management, such as [IKE], weak key checks SHOULD NOT be performed as they are seen as an unnecessary added code complexity that could weaken the intended security [EVALUATION]. 2.4. Block Size and Padding The AES uses a block size of sixteen octets (128 bits). Padding is required by the AES to maintain a 16-octet (128-bit) blocksize. Padding MUST be added, as specified in [ESP], such that the data to be encrypted (which includes the ESP Pad Length and Next Header fields) has a length that is a multiple of 16 octets. Because of the algorithm specific padding requirement, no additional padding is required to ensure that the ciphertext terminates on a 4- octet boundary (i.e., maintaining a 16-octet blocksize guarantees that the ESP Pad Length and Next Header fields will be right aligned within a 4-octet word). Additional padding MAY be included, as specified in [ESP], as long as the 16-octet blocksize is maintained. 2.5. Additional Information AES was invented by Joan Daemen from Banksys/PWI and Vincent Rijmen from ESAT-COSIC, both in Belgium, and is available world-wide on a royalty-free basis. It is not covered by any patents, and the Rijndael homepage contains the following statement: "Rijndael is Frankel, et al. Standards Track [Page 4]
RFC 3602 AES-CBC Cipher Algorithm Use with IPsec September 2003 available for free. You can use it for whatever purposes you want, irrespective of whether it is accepted as AES or not." AES's description can be found in [AES]. The Rijndael homepage is: http://www.esat.kuleuven.ac.be/~rijmen/rijndael/. The AES homepage, http://www.nist.gov/aes, contains a wealth of information about the AES, including a definitive description of the AES algorithm, performance statistics, test vectors and intellectual property information. This site also contains information on how to obtain an AES reference implementation from NIST. 2.6. Performance For a comparison table of the estimated speeds of AES and other cipher algorithms, please see [PERF-1], [PERF-2], [PERF-3], or [PERF-4]. The AES homepage has pointers to other analyses. 3. ESP Payload The ESP payload is made up of the IV followed by raw cipher-text. Thus the payload field, as defined in [ESP], is broken down according to the following diagram: +---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+ | | + Initialization Vector (16 octets) + | | +---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+ | | ~ Encrypted Payload (variable length, a multiple of 16 octets) ~ | | +---------------------------------------------------------------+ The IV field MUST be the same size as the block size of the cipher algorithm being used. The IV MUST be chosen at random, and MUST be unpredictable. Including the IV in each datagram ensures that decryption of each received datagram can be performed, even when some datagrams are dropped, or datagrams are re-ordered in transit. To avoid CBC encryption of very similar plaintext blocks in different packets, implementations MUST NOT use a counter or other low-Hamming distance source for IVs. Frankel, et al. Standards Track [Page 5]
RFC 3602 AES-CBC Cipher Algorithm Use with IPsec September 2003 3.1. ESP Algorithmic Interactions Currently, there are no known issues regarding interactions between the AES and other aspects of ESP, such as use of certain authentication schemes. 3.2. Keying Material The minimum number of bits sent from the key exchange protocol to the ESP algorithm must be greater than or equal to the key size. The cipher's encryption and decryption key is taken from the first <x> bits of the keying material, where <x> represents the required key size. 4. Test Vectors The first 4 test cases test AES-CBC encryption. Each test case includes the key, the plaintext, and the resulting ciphertext. The values of keys and data are either hexadecimal numbers (prefixed by "0x") or ASCII character strings (surrounded by double quotes). If a value is an ASCII character string, then the AES-CBC computation for the corresponding test case DOES NOT include the trailing null character ('\0') of the string. The computed cyphertext values are all hexadecimal numbers. The last 4 test cases illustrate sample ESP packets using AES-CBC for encryption. All data are hexadecimal numbers (not prefixed by "0x"). These test cases were verified using 2 independent implementations: the NIST AES-CBC reference implementation and an implementation provided by the authors of the Rijndael algorithm (http://csrc.nist.gov/encryption/aes/rijndael/ rijndael-unix-refc.tar). Case #1: Encrypting 16 bytes (1 block) using AES-CBC with 128-bit key Key : 0x06a9214036b8a15b512e03d534120006 IV : 0x3dafba429d9eb430b422da802c9fac41 Plaintext : "Single block msg" Ciphertext: 0xe353779c1079aeb82708942dbe77181a Case #2: Encrypting 32 bytes (2 blocks) using AES-CBC with 128-bit key Key : 0xc286696d887c9aa0611bbb3e2025a45a IV : 0x562e17996d093d28ddb3ba695a2e6f58 Plaintext : 0x000102030405060708090a0b0c0d0e0f 101112131415161718191a1b1c1d1e1f Ciphertext: 0xd296cd94c2cccf8a3a863028b5e1dc0a 7586602d253cfff91b8266bea6d61ab1 Frankel, et al. Standards Track [Page 6]
RFC 3602 AES-CBC Cipher Algorithm Use with IPsec September 2003 Case #3: Encrypting 48 bytes (3 blocks) using AES-CBC with 128-bit key Key : 0x6c3ea0477630ce21a2ce334aa746c2cd IV : 0xc782dc4c098c66cbd9cd27d825682c81 Plaintext : "This is a 48-byte message (exactly 3 AES blocks)" Ciphertext: 0xd0a02b3836451753d493665d33f0e886 2dea54cdb293abc7506939276772f8d5 021c19216bad525c8579695d83ba2684 Case #4: Encrypting 64 bytes (4 blocks) using AES-CBC with 128-bit key Key : 0x56e47a38c5598974bc46903dba290349 IV : 0x8ce82eefbea0da3c44699ed7db51b7d9 Plaintext : 0xa0a1a2a3a4a5a6a7a8a9aaabacadaeaf b0b1b2b3b4b5b6b7b8b9babbbcbdbebf c0c1c2c3c4c5c6c7c8c9cacbcccdcecf d0d1d2d3d4d5d6d7d8d9dadbdcdddedf Ciphertext: 0xc30e32ffedc0774e6aff6af0869f71aa 0f3af07a9a31a9c684db207eb0ef8e4e 35907aa632c3ffdf868bb7b29d3d46ad 83ce9f9a102ee99d49a53e87f4c3da55 Case #5: Sample transport-mode ESP packet (ping 192.168.123.100) Key: 90d382b4 10eeba7a d938c46c ec1a82bf SPI: 4321 Source address: 192.168.123.3 Destination address: 192.168.123.100 Sequence number: 1 IV: e96e8c08 ab465763 fd098d45 dd3ff893 Original packet: IP header (20 bytes): 45000054 08f20000 4001f9fe c0a87b03 c0a87b64 Data (64 bytes): 08000ebd a70a0000 8e9c083d b95b0700 08090a0b 0c0d0e0f 10111213 14151617 18191a1b 1c1d1e1f 20212223 24252627 28292a2b 2c2d2e2f 30313233 34353637 Augment data with: Padding: 01020304 05060708 090a0b0c 0d0e Pad length: 0e Next header: 01 (ICMP) Pre-encryption Data with padding, pad length and next header (80 bytes): 08000ebd a70a0000 8e9c083d b95b0700 08090a0b 0c0d0e0f 10111213 14151617 18191a1b 1c1d1e1f 20212223 24252627 28292a2b 2c2d2e2f 30313233 34353637 01020304 05060708 090a0b0c 0d0e0e01 Frankel, et al. Standards Track [Page 7]
RFC 3602 AES-CBC Cipher Algorithm Use with IPsec September 2003 Post-encryption packet with SPI, Sequence number, IV: IP header: 4500007c 08f20000 4032f9a5 c0a87b03 c0a87b64 SPI/Seq #: 00004321 00000001 IV: e96e8c08 ab465763 fd098d45 dd3ff893 Encrypted Data (80 bytes): f663c25d 325c18c6 a9453e19 4e120849 a4870b66 cc6b9965 330013b4 898dc856 a4699e52 3a55db08 0b59ec3a 8e4b7e52 775b07d1 db34ed9c 538ab50c 551b874a a269add0 47ad2d59 13ac19b7 cfbad4a6 Case #6: Sample transport-mode ESP packet (ping -p 77 -s 20 192.168.123.100) Key: 90d382b4 10eeba7a d938c46c ec1a82bf SPI: 4321 Source address: 192.168.123.3 Destination address: 192.168.123.100 Sequence number: 8 IV: 69d08df7 d203329d b093fc49 24e5bd80 Original packet: IP header (20 bytes): 45000030 08fe0000 4001fa16 c0a87b03 c0a87b64 Data (28 bytes): 0800b5e8 a80a0500 a69c083d 0b660e00 77777777 77777777 77777777 Augment data with: Padding: 0102 Pad length: 02 Next header: 01 (ICMP) Pre-encryption Data with padding, pad length and next header (32 bytes): 0800b5e8 a80a0500 a69c083d 0b660e00 77777777 77777777 77777777 01020201 Post-encryption packet with SPI, Sequence number, IV: IP header: 4500004c 08fe0000 4032f9c9 c0a87b03 c0a87b64 SPI/Seq #: 00004321 00000008 IV: 69d08df7 d203329d b093fc49 24e5bd80 Encrypted Data (32 bytes): f5199588 1ec4e0c4 488987ce 742e8109 689bb379 d2d750c0 d915dca3 46a89f75 Case #7: Sample tunnel-mode ESP packet (ping 192.168.123.200) Key: 01234567 89abcdef 01234567 89abcdef SPI: 8765 Source address: 192.168.123.3 Destination address: 192.168.123.200 Sequence number: 2 IV: f4e76524 4f6407ad f13dc138 0f673f37 Frankel, et al. Standards Track [Page 8]
RFC 3602 AES-CBC Cipher Algorithm Use with IPsec September 2003 Original packet: IP header (20 bytes): 45000054 09040000 4001f988 c0a87b03 c0a87bc8 Data (64 bytes): 08009f76 a90a0100 b49c083d 02a20400 08090a0b 0c0d0e0f 10111213 14151617 18191a1b 1c1d1e1f 20212223 24252627 28292a2b 2c2d2e2f 30313233 34353637 Augment data with: Padding: 01020304 05060708 090a Pad length: 0a Next header: 04 (IP-in-IP) Pre-encryption Data with original IP header, padding, pad length and next header (96 bytes): 45000054 09040000 4001f988 c0a87b03 c0a87bc8 08009f76 a90a0100 b49c083d 02a20400 08090a0b 0c0d0e0f 10111213 14151617 18191a1b 1c1d1e1f 20212223 24252627 28292a2b 2c2d2e2f 30313233 34353637 01020304 05060708 090a0a04 Post-encryption packet with SPI, Sequence number, IV: IP header: 4500008c 09050000 4032f91e c0a87b03 c0a87bc8 SPI/Seq #: 00008765 00000002 IV: f4e76524 4f6407ad f13dc138 0f673f37 Encrypted Data (96 bytes): 773b5241 a4c44922 5e4f3ce5 ed611b0c 237ca96c f74a9301 3c1b0ea1 a0cf70f8 e4ecaec7 8ac53aad 7a0f022b 859243c6 47752e94 a859352b 8a4d4d2d ecd136e5 c177f132 ad3fbfb2 201ac990 4c74ee0a 109e0ca1 e4dfe9d5 a100b842 f1c22f0d Case #8: Sample tunnel-mode ESP packet (ping -p ff -s 40 192.168.123.200) Key: 01234567 89abcdef 01234567 89abcdef SPI: 8765 Source address: 192.168.123.3 Destination address: 192.168.123.200 Sequence number: 5 IV: 85d47224 b5f3dd5d 2101d4ea 8dffab22 Original packet: IP header (20 bytes): 45000044 090c0000 4001f990 c0a87b03 c0a87bc8 Data (48 bytes): 0800d63c aa0a0200 c69c083d a3de0300 ffffffff ffffffff ffffffff ffffffff ffffffff ffffffff ffffffff ffffffff Augment data with: Padding: 01020304 05060708 090a Pad length: 0a Next header: 04 (IP-in-IP) Frankel, et al. Standards Track [Page 9]
RFC 3602 AES-CBC Cipher Algorithm Use with IPsec September 2003 Pre-encryption Data with original IP header, padding, pad length and next header (80 bytes): 45000044 090c0000 4001f990 c0a87b03 c0a87bc8 0800d63c aa0a0200 c69c083d a3de0300 ffffffff ffffffff ffffffff ffffffff ffffffff ffffffff ffffffff ffffffff 01020304 05060708 090a0a04 Post-encryption packet with SPI, Sequence number, IV: IP header: 4500007c 090d0000 4032f926 c0a87b03 c0a87bc8 SPI/Seq #: 00008765 00000005 IV: 85d47224 b5f3dd5d 2101d4ea 8dffab22 Encrypted Data (80 bytes): 15b92683 819596a8 047232cc 00f7048f e45318e1 1f8a0f62 ede3c3fc 61203bb5 0f980a08 c9843fd3 a1b06d5c 07ff9639 b7eb7dfb 3512e5de 435e7207 ed971ef3 d2726d9b 5ef6affc 6d17a0de cbb13892 5. IKE Interactions 5.1. Phase 1 Identifier For Phase 1 negotiations, IANA has assigned an Encryption Algorithm ID of 7 for AES-CBC. 5.2. Phase 2 Identifier For Phase 2 negotiations, IANA has assigned an ESP Transform Identifier of 12 for ESP_AES. 5.3. Key Length Attribute Since the AES allows variable key lengths, the Key Length attribute MUST be specified in both a Phase 1 exchange [IKE] and a Phase 2 exchange [DOI]. 5.4. Hash Algorithm Considerations A companion competition, to select the successor to SHA-1, the widely-used hash algorithm, recently concluded. The resulting hashes, called SHA-256, SHA-384 and SHA-512 [SHA2-1, SHA2-2] are capable of producing output of three different lengths (256, 384 and 512 bits), sufficient for the generation (within IKE) and authentication (within ESP) of the three AES key sizes (128, 192 and 256 bits). However, HMAC-SHA-1 [HMAC-SHA] and HMAC-MD5 [HMAC-MD5] are currently considered of sufficient strength to serve both as IKE generators of 128-bit AES keys and as ESP authenticators for AES encryption using 128-bit keys. Frankel, et al. Standards Track [Page 10]
RFC 3602 AES-CBC Cipher Algorithm Use with IPsec September 2003 6. Security Considerations Implementations are encouraged to use the largest key sizes they can when taking into account performance considerations for their particular hardware and software configuration. Note that encryption necessarily impacts both sides of a secure channel, so such consideration must take into account not only the client side, but the server as well. However, a key size of 128 bits is considered secure for the foreseeable future. For more information regarding the necessary use of random IV values, see [CRYPTO-B]. For further security considerations, the reader is encouraged to read [AES]. 7. IANA Considerations IANA has assigned Encryption Algorithm ID 7 to AES-CBC. IANA has assigned ESP Transform Identifier 12 to ESP_AES. 8. Intellectual Property Rights Statement The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any intellectual property or other rights that might be claimed to pertain to the implementation or use of the technology described in this document or the extent to which any license under such rights might or might not be available; neither does it represent that it has made any effort to identify any such rights. Information on the IETF's procedures with respect to rights in standards-track and standards-related documentation can be found in BCP-11. Copies of claims of rights made available for publication and any assurances of licenses to be made available, or the result of an attempt made to obtain a general license or permission for the use of such proprietary rights by implementers or users of this specification can be obtained from the IETF Secretariat. The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any copyrights, patents or patent applications, or other proprietary rights which may cover technology that may be required to practice this standard. Please address the information to the IETF Executive Director. Frankel, et al. Standards Track [Page 11]
RFC 3602 AES-CBC Cipher Algorithm Use with IPsec September 2003 9. References 9.1. Normative References [AES] NIST, FIPS PUB 197, "Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)," November 2001. http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/fips/fips197/ fips-197.{ps,pdf} [CBC] Pereira, R. and R. Adams, "The ESP CBC-Mode Cipher Algorithms", RFC 2451, November 1998. [ESP] Kent, S. and R. Atkinson, "IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)", RFC 2406, November 1998. 9.2. Informative References [ARCH] Kent, S. and R. Atkinson, "Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol", RFC 2401, November 1998. [CRYPTO-B] Bellovin, S., "Probable Plaintext Cryptanalysis of the IP Security Protocols", Proceedings of the Symposium on Network and Distributed System Security, San Diego, CA, pp. 155-160, February 1997. http://www.research.att.com/~smb/papers/probtxt.pdf [CRYPTO-S] B. Schneier, "Applied Cryptography Second Edition", John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, 1995, ISBN 0-471-12845-7. [DOI] Piper, D., "The Internet IP Security Domain of Interpretation for ISAKMP", RFC 2407, November 1998. [EVALUATION] Ferguson, N. and B. Schneier, "A Cryptographic Evaluation of IPsec," Counterpane Internet Security, Inc., January 2000. http://www.counterpane.com/ipsec.pdf [HMAC-MD5] Madson, C. and R. Glenn, "The Use of HMAC-MD5-96 within ESP and AH", RFC 2403, November 1998. [HMAC-SHA] Madson, C. and R. Glenn, "The Use of HMAC-SHA-1-96 within ESP and AH", RFC 2404, November 1998. [IKE] Harkins, D. and D. Carrel, "The Internet Key Exchange (IKE)", RFC 2409, November 1998. Frankel, et al. Standards Track [Page 12]
RFC 3602 AES-CBC Cipher Algorithm Use with IPsec September 2003 [MODES] Dworkin, M., "Recommendation for Block Cipher Modes of Operation: Methods and Techniques," NIST Special Publication 800-38A, December 2001. http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/ 800-38a/sp800-38a.pdf [PERF-1] Bassham, L. III, "Efficiency Testing of ANSI C Implementations of Round1 Candidate Algorithms for the Advanced Encryption Standard." http://csrc.nist.gov/encryption/aes/round1/r1-ansic.pdf [PERF-2] Lipmaa, Helger, "AES/Rijndael: speed." http://www.tcs.hut.fi/~helger/aes/rijndael.html [PERF-3] Nechvetal, J., E. Barker, D. Dodson, M. Dworkin, J. Foti and E. Roback, "Status Report on the First Round of the Development of the Advanced Encryption Standard." http://csrc.nist.gov/encryption/aes/round1/r1report.pdf [PERF-4] Schneier, B., J. Kelsey, D. Whiting, D. Wagner, C. Hall, and N. Ferguson, "Performance Comparison of the AES Submissions." http://www.counterpane.com/aes-performance.pdf [RFC-2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. [ROAD] Thayer, R., Doraswamy, N. and R. Glenn, "IP Security Document Roadmap", RFC 2411, November 1998. [SHA2-1] NIST, FIPS PUB 180-2 "Specifications for the Secure Hash Standard," August 2002. http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/fips/fips180-2/ fips180-2.pdf [SHA2-2] "Descriptions of SHA-256, SHA-384, and SHA-512." http://csrc.nist.gov/cryptval/shs/sha256-384-512.pdf 10. Acknowledgments Portions of this text, as well as its general structure, were unabashedly lifted from [CBC]. The authors want to thank Hilarie Orman for providing expert advice (and a sanity check) on key sizes, requirements for Diffie-Hellman groups, and IKE interactions. We also thank Scott Fluhrer for his helpful comments and recommendations. Frankel, et al. Standards Track [Page 13]
RFC 3602 AES-CBC Cipher Algorithm Use with IPsec September 2003 11. Authors' Addresses Sheila Frankel NIST 820 West Diamond Ave. Room 677 Gaithersburg, MD 20899 Phone: +1 (301) 975-3297 EMail: sheila.frankel@nist.gov Scott Kelly Airespace 110 Nortech Pkwy San Jose CA 95134 Phone: +1 408 635 2000 EMail: scott@hyperthought.com Rob Glenn NIST 820 West Diamond Ave. Room 605 Gaithersburg, MD 20899 Phone: +1 (301) 975-3667 EMail: rob.glenn@nist.gov Frankel, et al. Standards Track [Page 14]
RFC 3602 AES-CBC Cipher Algorithm Use with IPsec September 2003 12. Full Copyright Statement Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2003). All Rights Reserved. This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are included on all such copies and derivative works. However, this document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing the copyright notice or references to the Internet Society or other Internet organizations, except as needed for the purpose of developing Internet standards in which case the procedures for copyrights defined in the Internet Standards process must be followed, or as required to translate it into languages other than English. The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or assignees. This document and the information contained herein is provided on an "AS IS" basis and THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Acknowledgement Funding for the RFC Editor function is currently provided by the Internet Society. Frankel, et al. Standards Track [Page 15]

   

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